Study topics/questions for AP biology semester exam

 

1) What characterizes a prokaryotic cell?
2) Which of the following does NOT comprise a logical hierarchy of organization?
3) Which of the following statements is NOT true about all living things?
4) Two species belonging to the same class must also belong to the same
5) Maria and Bill go to a new restaurant and do not like the food they are served.
     Their hypothesis is that if they go to the restaurant again, they will not like the food.
      If they continue to follow the hypothetico-deductive method, what should they do next?
6) An atomic form of an element containing different numbers of neutrons is
7) Each element is unique and different from other elements because of its
8) What do atoms form when they share electron pairs?
9) One difference between carbon 12 and carbon 14 is that carbon 14 has
Use the information extracted from the periodic table in Figure 2.1 to answer the following three questions. <GRAPHIC> Figure 2.1 10) How many electrons does carbon have in its outermost (valence) energy level?
11) How many neutrons does the nucleus of sulfur contain?
12) Which four elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
13) A covalent chemical bond is one in which
14) Which of the following best describes chemical equilibrium?
15) The shape of a molecule
16) The partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to the
partial positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
17) Which of the following solutions has the greater concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)?
18) When an ice cube cools a drink 1 degree Celsius, which of the following is true?
19) A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?
20) Which of the following elements is the most abundant (percent dry weight) in both humans and bacteria?
21) What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?
22) Which property of the carbon atom gives it compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 4.1 23) Observe the structures of glucose and fructose in Figure 4.1. These two molecules differ in
24) Glucose and fructose are what type of isomers?
25) What type of bonds does carbon have a tendency to form?
26) The carbon present in all organic molecules comes from what?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 4.3 27) What is the name of the functional group shown in Figure 4.3?
know functional groups structure.
<GRAPHIC> Figure 4.4 28) The two molecules shown in Figure 4.4 are best described asA) positive ions.B) radioactive isotopes.C) geometric isomers.D) optical isomers.E) structural isomers.
<GRAPHIC> Figure 4.5 29) The two molecules shown in Figure 4.5 are best described asA) structural isomers.B) geometric isomers.C) radioactive isotopes.D) optical isomers.E) positive ions.
30) Which of the following is a FALSE statement concerning amine groups?
31) Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
32) A carbon skeleton is covalently bonded to both an amino group and a carboxyl group.
When placed in water,
The following questions refer to the list of functional groups below. Each group may be
used once, more than once, or not at all.
33) Which is an alcohol?
The following questions refer to the list of functional groups below. Each group may be
used once, more than once, or not at all.
34) Which is an amine?
35) Which is a carboxyl group?
36) Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?
37) Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers
by
38) Which of the following statements best summarizes structural differences between DNA and RNA?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 5.1 39) What is the molecule illustrated in Figure 5.1?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 5.2 40) What is the structure shown in Figure 5.2?
41) Which of the following is TRUE of an amino acid and starch?
42) Carbohydrates normally function in animals as
43) If three molecules of a fatty acid that has the formula C16H22O2 are joined to a molecule of glycerol (C3H8O3), then the resulting molecule would have the formula
<GRAPHIC> Figure 5.3 44) The chemical reactions illustrated in Figure 5.3 result in the formation of
45) At which level of protein structure are interactions between R groups most important?
46) What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
47) Condensation synthesis reactions are used in forming which of the following compounds?
48) Which of the following is TRUE concerning saturated fatty acids?
Please refer to Figure 5.4 to answer the following questions. <GRAPHIC> Figure 5.4 49) At which bond in Figure 5.4 would water need to be added to achieve hydrolysis of
the dipeptide shown, back to its component amino acids?
50) In Figure 5.4, which bond is closest to the N-terminus of the dipeptide?
51) In Figure 5.4, which bond is closest to the C-terminus of the dipeptide?

52) What is a triacylglycerol?
53) The element nitrogen is always present in all of the following EXCEPT
54) All of the following bases are found in DNA EXCEPT
55) All of the following molecules are carbohydrates EXCEPT
56) Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as
nucleotides?
57) Upon chemical analysis, a particular protein was found to contain 438 amino acids.
How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?
58) What would be an expected consequence of changing one amino acid in a particular
protein?
59) The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires
<GRAPHIC> Figure 5.7 60) If 100 molecules of the general type shown in Figure 5.7 were covalently joined
together in sequence, the single molecule that would result would be a
61) Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between condensation reactions and hydrolysis?
62) A sequence of a DNA polymer consisting of 80 purines and 80 pyrimidines could have
63) The difference between the two sugars in DNA and RNA is that the sugar in DNA
64) A new organism is discovered in the deserts of New Mexico. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 68 amino acid differences from humans, 62 differences from a gibbon, 24 differences from a rat, and 6 differences from a frog. These data
65) How does an enzyme catalyze a reaction?
66) Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?
67) Which of the following would decrease the entropy within a system?
68) What is the change in free energy at chemical equilibrium?
69) Which of the following is part of the first law of thermodynamics?
70) Which of the following is true for exergonic reactions?
71) Which term most precisely describes the general process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?D) metabolism
72) ATP generally energizes a cellular process by
73) A chemical reaction that has a positive DeltaG is correctly described as
74) Which of these statements regarding enzymes is FALSE?
75) How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
The next questions are based on the following information. A series of enzymes catalyze
the reaction XrightarrowYrightarrowZrightarrowA. Product "A" binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme. 76) In this example, substance X is
77) Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding enzyme cooperativity?ts.
78) Correct statements regarding ATP include: I. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
serves as a main energy shuttle inside cells. II. ATP drives endergonic reaction in the cell by the enzymatic transfer of the phosphate group to specific reactants. III. The regeneration of ATP from ADP and phosphate is an endergonic reaction.
79) Metabolism is best described as
80) Anabolic pathways
81) Light used as energy in nature.
82) The hydrolysis of sucrose by sucrase results in
Please refer to Figure 6.1 to answer the following questions. <GRAPHIC> 83) In Figure 6.1, which temperature curve most likely was generated from an enzyme taken from a thermophilic yeast?
Please refer to Figure 6.1 to answer the following questions. <GRAPHIC> 84) In Figure 6.1, the optimum temperature for enzyme 1 (curve 1) is approximately
85) Organelles that contain DNA include
86) Which of the following would be found in an animal cell but NOT in a bacterial cell?
87) Eukaryotic cells are typically larger than prokaryotic cells because
88) Cells can be described as having a cytoskeleton of internal structures that
contribute to the shape, organization, and movement of the cell. All of the following are part of the cytoskeleton EXCEPT
Refer to the following five terms to answer the following questions. Choose the most
appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. lysosome B. tonoplast C. mitochondrion D. Golgi apparatus E. peroxisome 89) secretes many polysaccharides
90) contains hydrolytic enzymes
91) helps to recycle the cell's organic material
92) site of cellular respiration
93) involved in storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs
94) contains its own DNA and ribosomes.
95) detoxifies alcohol in the liver
96) contains enzymes that convert fats to sugar
Refer to the following five terms to answer the following questions. Choose the most
appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not
at all97) contains cristae
98) Microfilaments participate in the formation of
Refer to the following five terms to answer the next questions. Choose the most
appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not
at all.

99) makes steroid hormones
100) digests damaged organelles
101) sorts out mixtures of substances and sends them to their proper destinations
Refer to the following five terms to answer the next questions. Choose the most appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. centriole B. lysosome C. nucleolus D. peroxisome E. ribosome 102) found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
103) possesses a microtubular structure similar in form to a basal body
Refer to the following five terms to answer the next questions. Choose the most appropriate term for each phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. centriole B. lysosome C. nucleolus D. peroxisome E. ribosome 104) assembles ribosomal precursors
For the following questions, use the lettered answers to match the structure to its proper cell type. Choose the most inclusive category. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all. A. structure is a feature of all cells B. structure is found in prokaryotic cells only C. structure is found in eukaryotic cells only D. structure is found in plant cells only E. structure is found in animal cells only 105) plasma membrane
106) cytoskeleton
107) ribosomes
108) plasmodesmata
109) tight junctions
110) Golgi bodies
111) Which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?
112) Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules?
113) Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing
which of the following molecules?
114) A biologist ground up some plant cells and then centrifuged the mixture. She
obtained some organelles from the sediment in the test tube. The organelles took up
CO2 and gave off O2. The organelles are most likely
115) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
116) Which of the following relationships between cell structures and their respective
functions is NOT correct?
117) Which of the following cell components is NOT directly involved in synthesis or
secretion?
118) All of the structures listed below are associated with movement in cells or by
cells EXCEPT
119) Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of lipids?
120) Of the following, which cell structure would most likely be visible with a light
microscope that had been manufactured to the maximum resolving power possible?
121) A primary objective of cell fractionation is
122) According to the fluid-mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is
a true statement about membrane phospholipids?
123) What are the membrane structures that function in active transport?
124) The net movement of uncharged molecules from a lower concentration to a higher
concentration is described by which of the following?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 8.1 Use the diagram of the U-tube setup (Figure 8.1) to answer the
following questions. The solutions in the two arms of this U-tube are separated by a
membrane that is permeable to water and glucose but not to sucrose. Side A is filled
with a solution of 2 M sucrose and 1 M glucose. Side B is filled with 1 M sucrose and
2 M glucose. 125) Initially, the solution in side A, with respect to that in side B, is
126) After the system reaches equilibrium, what changes are observed?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 8.2 Read the following information and refer to Figure 8.2 to answer
the following questions. Five dialysis bags, impermeable to sucrose, were filled with
various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing an
initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. At 10-minute intervals, the bags were
massed (weighed) and the percent change in mass of each bag was graphed. 127) Which line represents the bag that contained a solution isotonic to the 0.6 molar
solution at the beginning of the experiment?
 

128) Which line represents the bag with the highest initial concentration of sucrose?
<GRAPHIC> Figure 8.2 Read the following information and refer to Figure 8.2 to answer
the following questions. Five dialysis bags, impermeable to sucrose, were filled with
various concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing
an initial concentration of 0.6 M sucrose solution. At 10-minute intervals, the bags were
massed (weighed) and the percent change in mass of each bag was graphed.

129) What is the best explanation for the shape of line e. after 50 minutes?
A) Water is entering the bag at the same rate that sucrose is leaving the bag.

B) Water is no longer entering the bag.

C) Water is leaving and entering the bag at the same rate.

D) Water is no longer leaving the bag.

E) Water is neither entering nor leaving the bag.


130) Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma
membrane most rapidly?